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The Plantations of Ireland 1556 - 1700

Up to 1550, what were the three main groups of people living in Ireland?

In what order did the plantations of Ireland occur in the 16th & 17th Centuries?


Which of the following statements most accurately describes the majority of the population in Ireland at the beginning of the 16th Century?

16th century Irish man and woman

"You shall bring the Irish lords to further obedience…which thing must as yet rather be practised by sober ways, political drifts and amiable persuasions, founded in law and reason, rather than by rigorous dealing…or enforcement by strength or violence.’" King Henry VIII instructed his Irish Lord Deputy in 1520, to use whatever means necessary to bring the Irish Gaelic chieftains under greater Tudor (English) control. The means by which they set out to do this was 'Surrender & Regrant'. What did this policy involve?


Up until the 1550's, only one area in Ireland was truly 'anglicised'; the people spoke english, followed English customs, were loyal to the English throne and were generally closely associated with England. What was this area around Dublin known as?


What were the aims of Queen Mary I when she ordered the Plantation of Laois-Offaly?

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The initial aim of the English Queen Mary I in creating the Laois-Offaly Plantation was to prevent cattle raids in the Pale and dispossess the rebellious Gaelic clans of O Moores & O Connors. In what year did the Laois-Offaly Plantation begin and why was it a failure?


The results of the Laois-Offaly Plantation were very disappointing for the English. When Queen Elizabeth I attempted the Munster Plantation, she was determined to learn from the previous mistakes. What year did the Munster Plantation begin and what was the cause of this plantation?

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The Nine Years' War lasted from 1594 - 1603. Which two Gaelic clans led the rebellion of the Irish and at what famous battle were they eventually defeated?

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Having failed to defeat the Crown forces, the Nine Years' War was ended by a treaty that declared Hugh O'Neill a subject of the English Crown; he would retain all his lands, swear to never seek aid from foreign powers, end his support of the Gaelic bards, replace Brehon law with English Common Law and use the english language throughout his territory. What was this treaty called?


O’Neill and O’Donnell, two of the most powerful Gaelic chieftains in Ireland, and more than ninety of their followers, fearing continued persecution by the English Crown, set sail in a French ship from Rathmullan in Donegal. It was the clearest indication that Gaelic Ireland had fallen to English control and opened the way for increased plantation. What was this event called and in what year did it take place?


When did the Ulster Plantation begin and which English Monarch undertook it?

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What three types of 'Planters' were brought in as settlers in the Ulster Plantation?

The English Civil War (1642–1651) brought about a seismic change in English rule and government. What two sides fought in the English Civil War and who emerged victorious?

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The Cromwellian Plantation began with the 'Act of Settlement' in 1652. What did this act declare?


When Cromwell declared infamously that they could "Go to Hell or to Connaught", who was he referring to and why did he want 'them' to go to Connaught?

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The greatest long-term effect of the Cromwellian Plantation was the creation of the 'Protestant Ascendancy'. Who were the Protestant Ascendancy?

By 1700, the Protestant Ascendancy were roughly 10% of the entire population of the island of Ireland. What percentage of the land in Ireland did they own?


To consolidate the position of the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland, who were a small minority (10%), the Irish Parliament was restricted to Protestants only. A series of laws were passed from the beginning of the 18th Century onwards, stripping the Catholic Irish of most of their political, civil, religious and educational rights. What were these laws known as?

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